foreach vs ForEach

A number of people have asked me why there is no Microsoft-provided ForEach sequence operator extension method. The List<T> class has such a method already of course, but there’s no reason why such a method could not be created as an extension method for all sequences. It’s practically a one-liner:

public static void ForEach<T>(
  this IEnumerable<T> sequence, 
  Action<T> action)
{
  // argument null checking omitted
  foreach(T item in sequence) 
    action(item);
}

My usual response to “why is feature X not implemented?” is that of course as Raymond Chen said “Features start out nonexistent and somebody has to make them happen.” All features are unimplemented until someone designs, implements, tests, documents and ships the feature, and no one has yet spent the money to do so in this case.

It’s not much money though. Yes, though I have famously pointed out that even small features can have large costs, this one really is dead easy, obviously correct, easy to test, and easy to document. Cost is always a factor of course, but the costs for this one really are quite small.

Of course, that cuts the other way too. If it is so cheap and easy, then you can do it yourself if you need it. And really what matters is not the low cost, but rather the net benefit. As we’ll see, I think the benefits are also very small, and therefore the net benefit might in fact be negative. But we can go a bit deeper here. I am philosophically opposed to providing such a method, for two reasons.

The first reason is that doing so violates the functional programming principles that all the other sequence operators are based upon. Clearly the sole purpose of a call to this method is to cause side effects. The purpose of an expression is to compute a value, not to cause a side effect. The purpose of a statement is to cause a side effect. The call site of this thing would look an awful lot like an expression (though, admittedly, since the method is void-returning, the expression could only be used in a “statement expression” context.) It does not sit well with me to make the one and only sequence operator that is only useful for its side effects.

The second reason is that doing so adds zero new representational power to the language. Doing this lets you rewrite this perfectly clear code:

foreach(Foo foo in foos){ statement involving foo; }

into this code:

foos.ForEach((Foo foo)=>{ statement involving foo; });

which uses almost exactly the same characters in slightly different order. And yet the second version is harder to understand, harder to debug, and introduces closure semantics, thereby potentially changing object lifetimes in subtle ways.

When we provide two subtly different ways to do exactly the same thing, we produce confusion in the industry, we make it harder for people to read each other’s code, and so on. Sometimes the benefit added by having two different textual representations for one operation (like query comprehensions versus their underlying method call form, or + versus String.Concat) is so huge that it’s worth the potential confusion. But the compelling benefit of query expressions is their readability; this new form of foreach is certainly no more readable than the normal form and is arguably worse.

If you don’t agree with these philosophical objections and find practical value in this pattern, by all means, go ahead and write this trivial one-liner yourself.


Notes from 2020

This episode was, oddly enough, one of the more controversial things I’ve posted on this blog; it sparked a lot of comments and a lot of inbound links from people arguing about the points raised here. Some of the points made in the comments to the original were:

  • The ForEach method does exist on lists, as I noted. Is there anything different about lists than sequences which makes it better on lists? My answer was that I found it still distasteful on lists, but with lists at least we can make the argument that lists are intended to be a mutable data structure, so maybe it makes more sense to have a method designed to have a side effect operating on a mutable data structure? But that’s a pretty weak argument because of course you’re still not supposed to mutate a list while you are iterating it!
  • A commenter pointed out that the list implementation of the ForEach method iterates by index in a for loop; ironically it does not use a foreach.
  • A ForEach extension method is allegedly more readable at the end of a long chain of sequence operators than a foreach statement is at the top.
  • A ForEach extension method that introduces different semantics than regular foreach would have a clear benefit — like AsParallel().ForEach() does. Good point, though of course that is a sharp tool.
  • You could make the extension method non-void by both causing a side effect on each element and then yielding it. There are usages for such a thing; in particular I have used that method for “dump this sequence to the debugger display”. It’s nice to be able to insert a debugging hook like that into the middle of a long chain of sequence operators that is going wrong. But I would still feel icky about putting it into production code.

Reserved and contextual keywords

Many programming languages, C# included, treat certain sequences of letters as “special”.

Some sequences are so special that they cannot be used as identifiers. Let’s call those the “reserved keywords” and the remaining special sequences we’ll call the “contextual keywords”. They are “contextual” because the character sequence might one meaning in a context where the keyword is expected and another in a context where an identifier is expected.[1. An unfortunate consequence of this definition is that using is said to be a reserved keyword even though its meaning depends on its context; whether the using begins a directive or a statement determines its meaning. And similarly for other keywords that have multiple usages, like fixed.]

The C# specification defines the following reserved keywords:

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