Nullable micro-optimization, part two

I hope you’ve all had a pleasant Christmas; I sure did, though once again I was unable to return to Waterloo region to visit my family. Hopefully I’ll make it for Easter this coming year.

Last time on FAIC I described why calling GetValueOrDefault() instead of Value allows the jitter to generate smaller, faster code. Of course this optimization is first, tiny, and second, only a valid optimization in the case where you are certain that the nullable value is not actually null. Over the next few episodes I’ll describe how the C# compiler uses that fact to generate better code for you, but in order to do that, I first need to talk a bit about lifted arithmetic.

Back in 2007 I described what mathematicians mean by “lifted arithmetic”, and how the C# specification uses this term in a subtly wrong way. It’s been a long time, so here’s a quick refresher. Mathematically, by “lifted” we mean that if there is a function f : S → S, and we make a new set S' = S ∪ { null }, then the lifted function f' : S' → S' is defined as f'(null) → null, f'(s ∈ S) → f(s). Or, in English, the lifted function gives null when given null, and agrees with the unlifted function otherwise.

We then extend the definition of “lifted” to functions of the form f : S → T in the obvious manner: the lifted function is f' : S' → T'. Similarly for functions of two, three or more parameters: the lifted function is null if any argument is null, and agrees with the unlifted function otherwise.

Lifted arithmetic operators in C# work similarly. In C#, if there is an operator, let’s say the unary ~ operator that takes an int and produces an int, then there is also a lifted ~ operator that takes an int? and produces an int?. The lifted operator produces null if given null, and otherwise agrees with the unlifted operator.

Some so-called “lifted” operators do not follow this pattern, but for the purposes of this series we’ll mostly be talking about the ones that do.

I want to make a brief aside here to discuss how the C# compiler knows to use a lifted operator in the first place. The answer is straightforward: it uses overload resolution.

Continuing our example, when you say ~x, the compiler pretends that you did a method call operator~(x) and creates a candidate set that consists of “methods” corresponding to the signatures of the user-defined and built-in ~ operators. If overload resolution produces a unique best applicable operator then it is chosen and the operand is implicitly converted to the “parameter type” of the chosen “operator method”, otherwise the compiler produces an error. That’s an oversimplification; consult the specification for the exact details.

Unfortunately, the specification sections on operator overload resolution are not strictly speaking entirely accurate: there are some known discrepancies between the compiler and the specification. In some of these cases the compiler is wrong and in some the specification is wrong. The areas with small discrepancies include (1) precisely when a user-defined operator is considered to be “liftable” and what the resulting semantics are, (2) how the candidate set for operators on enumerated and delegate types are determined, and (3) how the “betterness” rules treat lifted operators.

Mads and I have a number of times attempted to come up with better spec language but I don’t think the proposed changes made it into the latest revision. I might choose to do blog articles on these interesting and difficult corner cases in the future.

The important fact that will come into play later in this series is that if overload resolution chooses a lifted operator then the operand is implicitly converted to the nullable type. Just like how when normal overload resolution chooses a method, the arguments are implicitly converted to the corresponding formal parameter types.

Returning now to the subject at hand: how does the C# compiler generate code for a lifted operator? When you say:

int? y = ~x;

what happens? Let’s suppose that x is a legal expression of type int?, just to keep it easy. Overload resolution determines that the lifted ~ operator that takes an int? and produces an int? is the unique best applicable operator. The expression is already of the correct type. Now, you might naively think that the compiler would pretend that you’d typed:

int? y = x.HasValue ? ~x.Value : null;

but of course that code is wrong in two ways.

First, it doesn’t compile because the type of the conditional operator expression cannot be determined.

Astonishingly, I’ve never written a blog article about this specific aspect of the conditional operator, though it has certainly come up on StackOverflow a lot. This is probably the blog article that came the closest to describing this common problem.

And second, what if the expression x has a side effect? We would not want to generate

int? y = ~M(i++);


int? y = M(++i).HasValue ? ~M(++i).Value : null;

because then the variable gets incremented twice and the method gets called twice if the result of the first call is not null. And of course the value returned the second time might be different! We can fix these two problems easily enough:

int? y;
int? temp = x;
y = temp.HasValue ? new int?(~temp.Value) : new int?();

And now we’re good.

At this point the C# compiler can say “but wait a moment! if we are on the “consequence” branch of the conditional operator then we know for sure that temp.HasValue is true. Therefore the compiler can generate the more optimal code:

int? y;
int? temp = x;
y = temp.HasValue ? new int?(~temp.GetValueOrDefault()) : new int?();

Which is in fact what both the “original recipe” and the “extra crispy Roslyn” compilers do. The savings is tiny, but it is real, and these savings add up as the expressions get more and more complicated, as we’ll see.

Next time on FAIC: Is that the only optimization a C# compiler can perform when generating code for lifted arithmetic? Of course not! In the next few episodes we’ll look at some ways the compiler can be more clever, and compare the Roslyn compiler’s heuristics to the previous compiler’s heuristics. Happy New Year all, and we’ll see you in 2013 for more fabulous adventures.


Nullable micro-optimizations, part one

Which is faster, Nullable<T>.Value or Nullable<T>.GetValueOrDefault()?

Before I answer that question, my standard response to “which horse is faster?” questions applies. Read that first.


Welcome back. But again, before I answer the question I need to point out that the potential performance difference between these two mechanisms for obtaining the non-nullable value of a nullable value type is a consequence of the fact that these two mechanisms are not semantically equivalent. The former may legally only be called if you are sure that the nullable value is non-null; put another way, calling Value without knowing that HasValue is true is a boneheaded exception. The latter may be called on any nullable value. A glance at a simplified version of the source code illustrates the difference.

struct Nullable<T> where T : struct
  private bool hasValue;
  private T value;
  public Nullable(T value)
    this.hasValue = true;
    this.value = value;
  public bool HasValue { get { return this.hasValue; } }
  public T Value
      if (!this.HasValue) throw something;
      return this.value;
  public T GetValueOrDefault() 
    return this.value; 
  ... and then all the other conversion gear and so on ...

The first thing to notice is that a nullable value type’s ability to represent a “null” integer or decimal or whatever is not magical. (Nullable value types are magical in other ways; for example, there’s no way to write your own struct that has the strange boxing behaviour of a nullable value type; an int? boxes to either an int or null, never to a boxed int?. But let’s not worry about these magical features today.) A nullable value type is nothing more than an instance of the value type plus a bool saying whether it’s null or not.

If a variable of nullable value type is initialized with the default constructor then the hasValue field will be its default value, false, and the value field will be default(T). If it is initialized with the declared constructor then of course the hasValue field is true and the value field is any legal value, including possibly T‘s default value. Thus, the implementation of GetValueOrDefault() need not check the flag; if the flag is true then the value field is set correctly, and if it is false, then it is set to the default value of T.

Looking at the code it should be clear that Value is almost certainly not faster than GetValueOrDefault() because obviously the former does exactly the same work as the latter in the success case, plus the additional work of the flag check. Moreover, because GetValueOrDefault() is so brain-dead simple, the jitter is highly likely to perform an inlining optimization.

An inlining optimization is where the jitter eliminates an unnecessary “call” and “return” instruction by simply generating the code of the method body “inline” in the caller. This is a great optimization because doing so can make code both smaller and faster in some cases, though it does make it harder to debug because the debugger has no good way to generate breakpoints inside the inlined method.

How the jitter chooses to inline or not is an implementation detail, but it is reasonable to assume that it is less likely to perform an inlining optimization on code that contains more than one “basic block” and has a throw in it.

A “basic block” is a region of code where you know that the code will execute from the top of the block to the bottom without any “normal” branches in or out of the middle of the block. (A basic block may of course have exceptions thrown out of it.) Many optimizing compilers use “basic blocks” as an abstraction because it abstracts away the unnecessary details of what the block actually does, and treats it solely as a node in a flow control graph.

It should also be clear that though the relative performance difference might be large, the absolute difference is small. A call, field fetch, conditional jump and return in the typical case makes up the difference, and those things are each only nanoseconds.

Now, this is of course not to say that you should willy-nilly change all your calls to Value to GetValueOrDefault() for performance reasons. Read my rant again if you have the urge to do that! Don’t go changing working, debugged, tested code in order to obtain a performance benefit that is (1) highly unlikely to be a real bottleneck, and (2) highly unlikely to be your worst performance problem.

And besides, using Value has the nice property that if you have made a mistake and fetched the value of a null, you’ll get an exception that informs you of where your bug is! Code that draws attention to its faults is a good thing.

Finally, I note that here we have one of those rare cases where the frameworks design guidelines have been deliberately bent. We have a “Get” method is actually faster than a property getter, and the property getter throws! Normally you expect the opposite: the “Get” method is usually the one that is slow and can throw, and the property is the one that is fast and never throws. Though this is somewhat unfortunate, remember, the design guidelines are our servants, not our masters, and they are guidelines, not rules.

Next time on FAIC: How does the C# compiler use its knowledge of the facts discussed today to your advantage? Have a great Christmas everyone; we’ll pick up this subject again in a week.

Representation and identity

(Note: not to be confused with Inheritance and Representation.)

I get a fair number of questions about the C# cast operator. The most frequent question I get is:

short sss = 123;
object ooo = sss;            // Box the short.
int iii = (int) sss;         // Perfectly legal.
int jjj = (int) (short) ooo; // Perfectly legal
int kkk = (int) ooo;         // Invalid cast exception?! Why?

Why? Because a boxed T can only be unboxed to T (or Nullable<T>.) Once it is unboxed, it’s just a value that can be cast as usual, so the double cast works just fine.
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