Benchmarking mistakes, part one

NOTE: I wrote this series of articles for a web site which went out of business soon thereafter. They asked for a beginner-level series on how to benchmark C# programs. I’ve copied the articles as I wrote them below. Part two is here.

In this series of articles, I’m going to go through some of the mistakes I frequently see people making who are attempting to write benchmarks in C#. But before we get into the mistakes, I suppose I should introduce myself and define the term.

Hi, I’m Eric Lippert; I work at Coverity where I design and implement static analyzers to find bugs in C# programs. Before that I was at Microsoft for 16 years working on the C#, VBScript, JScript and Visual Basic compilers, amongst other things. I write a blog about language design issues at Many thanks to the editors here at for inviting me to write this series.

OK, let’s get into it. What exactly do I mean when I say benchmark?

The term comes originally from surveying; a surveyor would mark an object that was at an already-known position and then use that mark to determine the relative and absolute positions of other objects. In computing the term, like so much other jargon, has been liberally borrowed and now means pretty much any sort of performance comparison between two alternatives.

Benchmarking is often used to describe the performance of computer hardware: you write a program, compile and execute it on two different computers, and see which one performs better. That’s not the kind of benchmarking I’m going to talk about in this series; rather, I want to talk about performance benchmark tests for software.

I want to clarify that further, starting with the meaning of “performance” itself. The first rule of software metrics is well known: you get what you measure.

If you reward people for making a measurable improvement in memory usage, don’t be surprised if time performance gets worse, and vice versa. If you reward improvement rather than achieving a goal then you can expect that they’ll keep trying to make improvements even after the goal has been achieved (or worse, even if it is never achieved!)

This brings us to our first benchmarking mistake:

Mistake #1: Choosing a bad metric.

If you’ve chosen a bad metric then you’re going to waste a lot of effort measuring and improving an aspect of the software that is not relevant to your users, so choose carefully.

For the rest of this series I’m going to assume that the relevant performance metric that your benchmark measures is average execution time, and not one of the hundreds of potential other metrics, like worse-case time, memory usage, disk usage, network usage, and so on. This is the most common metric for performance benchmarks and hence the one I see the most mistakes in.

I also want to clarify one other thing before we dive in. I’m assuming here that the purpose of the benchmark is to empirically determine the performance of a small part of a larger software project so that an informed decision can be made.

For example, you might have a program that, among its many other tasks, sometimes has to sort a large set of data. The benchmarks I’m talking about in this series are the narrowly targeted tests of, say, half a dozen different sort algorithms to determine which ones yield acceptable performance on typical data; I’m not talking about “end to end” performance testing of the entire application. Often in large software projects the individual parts have good performance in isolation, but bad performance in combination; you’ve got to test both.

That brings us to:

Mistake #2: Over-focusing on subsystem performance at the expense of end-to-end performance.

This series of articles is going to be all about subsystem performance; don’t forget to budget some time for end-to-end testing as well.

So far we’ve seen some very general mistakes; now let’s start to dig into the actual mistakes people make in implementing and executing their subsystem performance benchmarks in C#. The number one most common mistake I see is, no kidding:

Mistake #3: Running your benchmark in the debugger.

This is about the worst thing you can possibly do. The results will be totally unreliable. Think about all the things that are happening when you run a managed program in a debugger that are not happening when your customer runs the program: the CLR is sending information to the debugger about the state of the program, debug output is being displayed, heck, an entire other enormous process is running.

But it gets worse, far worse.

The jit compiler knows that a debugger is attached, and it deliberately de-optimizes the code it generates to make it easier to debug. The garbage collector knows that a debugger is attached; it works with the jit compiler to ensure that memory is cleaned up less aggressively, which can greatly affect performance in some scenarios.

But perhaps I am getting ahead of myself. What is this “jit compiler” thing? In order to make sense of the next episode in this series you’ll need to have a pretty solid understanding of how compilation works in .NET. Here’s the high level view.

Let’s suppose you write some source code in C# using Visual Studio. When you build that project the IDE starts up the C# compiler. A compiler is by definition a program which translates a program written in one language into “the same” program written in another language. The C# compiler translates C# code into a different language, IL, the Intermediate Language. (Also sometimes notated CIL for Common IL or MSIL for Microsoft IL, but we’ll just stick with “IL”.)

IL is a very low-level language designed so that in its compressed binary form it is reasonably compact but also reasonably fast to analyze. A managed assembly (a .exe or .dll file) contains the IL for every method in the project as well as the “metadata” for the project: a compact description of all the classes, structs, enums, delegates, interfaces, fields, properties, methods, events,… and so on in your program.

When you run code in an managed assembly, the Common Language Runtime (CLR) reads the metadata out of the assembly to detemine what the types and methods and so on are. But the real miracle of the CLR is the Just In Time compiler — “the jitter” for short. The jitter is a compiler, so again, it translates from one language to another. The CLR runs the jitter on the IL associated with a method immediately before that method is about to run for the first time — hence the name “Just In Time compiler”. It translates the IL into the machine code that will actually execute on the processor.

So now perhaps it is more clear why understanding the jitter behaviour is so important when benchmarking code; the jitter is dynamically generating the actual machine code on the fly, and therefore determining how heavily optimized that machine code is. The jitter knows whether there is a debugger attached or not, and if there is then it figures it had better not be aggressive about optimizations because you might be trying to inspect the code in the debugger; heavily optimized code is harder to understand. But obviously the unoptimized code will be less performant, and therefore the benchmark is ruined.

Even if you don’t run your benchmark program in the debugger it is still important to make sure that you are not telling the jitter to go easy on the optimizations:

Mistake #4: Benchmarking the debug build instead of the release build.

If you compile a project in Visual Studio in “debug” mode then both the C# compiler and the jit compiler will again deliberately generate less-optimized code even if you run the program outside of the debugger on the assumption that clarity is better than speed when you are attempting to diagnose problems.

And of course the debug version of your program might contain special-purpose code of your own devising to make debugging easier. For example, expensive assertions might be checked which would be ignored in the release build.

Both mistakes #3 and #4 are actually specific versions of a more general mistake: testing the code in an environment radically different from the customer’s environment. The customer is not going to be running the debug version of your product, so don’t test that version. We’ll come back to this point in a later episode.

Next time in this series I’ll talk about mistakes made in specific measurement techniques; after that we’ll take a look at some more subtle ways in which forgetting about the jitter can lead to bad benchmarks.

21 thoughts on “Benchmarking mistakes, part one

    • Wow – I never knew about `Process.TotalProcessorTime`. Seems like for performing benchmarks this might be ideal – especially in the world of power saving devices (like laptops) where we might be getting benchmarks clouded by power optimizations without necessarily realizing it. Interesting about the stopwatch being unavailable in some cases – I was definitely not aware of this.

      Nice link, Jon!

    • Oh yes, that StopWatch thing!
      I’ve once wasted some hours looking for an assumed bug, but in the end it was StopWatch fault.
      On our development and test servers all was well, but on production it looked like our Cache needs 12 seconds (sometimes only) instead of a few milliseconds.
      The solution was found as the StopWatch was compared to DateTime.Now – there simply was no slow cache, but the StopWatch was simply insane.
      Never had expected this 😦

  1. I doubt that the timing thing described in that four and a half year old blog post is still an issue. We ran into this in 2005 or 2006 on a dual-core Athlon, and Microsoft had a fix for it. See my article, “Timer Troubles” at

    I strongly suspect that it’s a non-issue by now if you have modern hardware and/or an operating system newer than Windows XP. Everything I’ve read on the subject leads me to believe that QueryPerformanceCounter and QueryPerformanceFrequency work correctly in the face of variable clock rates and multiple CPUs. If Stopwatch is implemented in terms of those two functions, then this “problem” has been dead for five or more years.

    • Here the problem with Stopwatch occured on Windows 2003 Server (fully patched, serverworks board with an Opteron).
      Another problem are virtual machines on W2008R2, where the clock is slower than reality – I found no good solution up to now. The Host time is fine all the time.

  2. Pingback: If you’re using enum.ToString() that often, you’re doing it wrong | David Zych

  3. Pingback: c# - LINQ vs foreach vs para resultados de pruebas de rendimiento

  4. Pingback: c# - LINQ vs foreach vs pour les résultats des tests de performances

  5. Pingback: Benchmarking mistakes, part two | Fabulous adventures in coding

  6. Pingback: Benchmarking mistakes, part three | Fabulous adventures in coding

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